Studies and the labour market


 

Universities have been monitoring careers of its graduates since the 1st October 2011.  The obligation, resulting from amendments to the Act on Higher Education is to provide better alignment of training courses and programs to a demanding job market where graduates find increasing difficulties.
 
The Ministry of Science and Higher Education does not specify how universities shall trace the fate of former students, but the goal is simple - the idea is to check where and how much time after the diploma they need to find a job. Monitoring results will also be a valuable indication for high school graduates – they will find out what chances they have finding employment after a given university. The more job opportunities after graduation the graduates have, the greater popularity of the university. Such information is included because it is not a secret that a high level of unemployment of university graduates is a big problem. In accordance with the CIMA report the number of unemployed graduates has increased by 70.4 thousand since 2007. Now graduates represent 10.5 percent of all unemployed. It means that almost one in ten Polish unemployed have a higher education.
 
A diploma does not equal work

Percentage of students at universities in Poland is one of the highest in Europe. More than half of each year graduates goes to a university – shows the diagnosis entitled  "Higher Education in Poland" prepared by the Institute (the Institute for Market Economy) and Ernst & Young. However, a high number of students does not always go hand in hand with high levels of education. There is an opinion that the Polish education system is not sufficiently adapted to the expectations and requirements of the labor market. As a result, young people with degrees have a problem to start their careers. For comparison: the time between graduation and start of work is three months in the European Union and it is about two years in Poland. According to other data about 60 percent of Polish graduates do not work in a learned profession. As they do not want to be unemployed they have to retrain and learn a new profession. The fact that they are unprepared to enter the labor market may be also proved by research conducted by the entrepreneurs. They show that college graduates do not have the skills employers expect from them. In turn, graduates complain that they are required not only good diplomas, but also experience. That is why internships are so popular as they help them to acquire new skills and obtain valuable work experience. Young people can also apply for a loan to start business but it is not the only opportunity to facilitate the first steps in a career. A chance to acquire a job by young people without experience is to look for help in temporary work agencies.
 
Temporary but permanent

There is an opinion that temporary work is a flexible form of employment, but unstable. Yet, in accordance with market reports, temporary employment agencies increase the chances of workers on the labor market.

- Today in Poland, there are nearly 20 percent of people working through them that have found permanent employment with the same employer. In addition, more and more companies introduce a structure of employment, on the basis of which about 80 percent of them are permanent workers, and the remaining 20 percent provides a flexible employment. Last year, over 11.5 thousand employers benefited from outsourcing. It's 10 percent more than in difficult year which was 2009. All says that this market will grow by 15-20 percent. Companies turn to flexible forms of employment, when they see the increase in orders, but they are not sure whether these orders will be stable in the long run. From experience and observation of the market we can say that together with an improved economic situation on the market a lot of temporary jobs turn into permanent ones - says Grażyna Chmielowska, Director of Sales & Operational of Adecco Poland.

According to Eurociett’s data, temporary employees accounted at 0.6 percent of the total number of employed in Poland in 2008. A year later it was 0.44 percent. Temporary work in Poland has a much shorter tradition. Nevertheless, the data on the development of the domestic market of temporary employment (26 per cent growth in 2012, for Eurociett) show that we are much more aware of the benefits. both for companies and employees, coming from temporary employment.

- Entrepreneurs appreciate advantages of outsourcing including fast and effective response to the changing economic situation and flexible matching of staff to current business needs. In turn, employees appreciate faster recruitment process, specialized training and professional advice on employment - explains Grażyna Chmielowska.
 
Not only for graduates

The first job should be decided during studies. This allows prospective graduates to improve their chances on a competitive job market

- Taking temporary work allows young people to adapt their life to the professional duties and responsibilities at school. Thanks to a flexible form of employment they can not only earn money, but also become more independent and, above all, gain valuable experience. Temporary work allows acquisition of basic competencies in the field such as customer service, organization and style of work in companies. It also requires interest in external environment of the employer including market, industry, regulations - such knowledge will pay dividends in the future. It is not without significance in the educational aspect -  work teaches young people responsibility, being systematic and mandatory. It develops creative thinking and shapes our ability to identify with the group, working with people, confront their own attitudes with the attitudes of others - says Grażyna Chmielowska.
 
A good example showing the role of temporary employment in finding a job are the foreign markets. The Ciett Economic Report 2011 (data for 2009) for eight European countries shows, more people found permanent employment if they had worked in the temporary employment agency before.

Country
Employment before temporary job
Employment after temporary job
Switzerland
45 %
60 %
Belgium 
44 %
77 %
Luxemburg
43 %
69 %
Germany
36 %
56 %
Czech
33 %
48 %
Norway
20 %
80 %
Portugal
18 %
71 %
France 
6 %
74 %

Ciett Economic Report 2011 (data for 2009)
 
In accordance with Ciett Economic Report 2011 nearly 9 million people every day could work on a full-time basis around the world thanks to temporary work in 2009.